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Disk Partitioning-System, Boot Partition and File systems ( NTFS, FAT, EXT2)

Disk Partitions

Partition Type

There are Three main types of partition.
Primary partition  is the partition that was created first, and usually the operating system on it. It is possible to have up to four primary partitions.
If you have space for more than 4 partitions, or use an older operating system like Windows 98 which allows only one primary partition, then the extended partition are logical part of the hard disk from the end of the last primary partition to the end of the hard disk. Same extended partition must be the logical partitions, and is not usable for keeping data. Therefore, its purpose is to put under one roof all logical drives.
Logical drive (logical partition) is a partition with data, which is part of an extended partition. It is possible to have up to 4 such logical partitions in the extended partition.

On the image bellow can be recognized Primary partition- 1, Extended – 2 and Logical partitions – 3. Primary partition at the beginning of the disc, is dark blue. Extended partitions, as mentioned earlier, includes all logical partitions inside, are marked in green. At the end two logical partitions are marked by bright blue.

 Disk Management

Type of File Systems and Format partitions

To use the partition, it must be formatted in one of existing file systems. This means that the partition should be regulated by the rules that the operating system recognizes.
Windows uses two types of file systems:

FAT (File Allocation Table) is an older type that was used on floppy disks (FAT12), DOS and Windows 95 (FAT16) and Windows 95 OSR2/ 98/ ME Windows (FAT32). With today’s perspective FAT file system  is obsolete, although performance is still excellent for a smaller hard drive (up to 40 GB). Newer Windows operating systems can still make use of FAT32 partitions. FAT file systems allow only 8 characters for a file, and three letters of their attribute.

NTFS (New Technology File System) is a file system that allows security and greater robustness in operation. Further advantages are better performance with larger disks, up to 255 characters for the name and the attribute file, as well as less disk fragmentation. First, it came with Windows NT, and is still used by all newer Windows, such as Windows 2000 , XP, Windows 7 and finally  Windows 8. The little weakness of NTFS partitions ( if we can say that it is a weakness) is that are not visible from DOS boot disk so that they do not normally see, and FDISK(partition utility) see them limited.

Unix and Linux family of operating systems usually use the following file systems:
EXT2, EXT3, ReiserFS.
Ext3 and ReiserFS are modern solutions, and their advantages and disadvantages are not the purpose of this article. Readers can find out more about these file systems at the following address:


And finally to speak about BIOS

BIOS is part of the computer that allows him to manage all devices on a low level, ie, without an operating system. When the PC start for the first work, the BIOS performs a test components and enable bootstrap so that the hard disk drive (or other device) loaded following schedule bootstrap, which is in the MBR, which allow operating system ( in our case Windows ) to start. We can talk about partitioning tools and utilities, but that is another story, in some of the following articles.