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Disk Partitioning-System, Boot Partition and File systems ( NTFS, FAT, EXT2)

Disk Partitions

Disk Partitioning -This article deals with the problem of sharing hard drives to one or more partitions. Why is it necessary to partition (divide) hard disk?Unpartition disk is unusable . To the hard drive contained an operating system such as Microsoft Windows, it must be partition in some way. To some extent there is an advantage to have multiple partitions, it is possible to manipulate data so that in the event of a system crash, data can be preserved, or maybe you have need for installation of the multiple operating systems on one computer.

It is possibly one hard disk to be divided into several partition. Each partition will be displayed as separate disk in Windows, as shown in Figure:

My computer disk drives

In this picture we can see that one hard drive is divided into 3 partitions, C:, D:, and E:.
Also we have another hard disk ( F:) drive with 80 GB total space, CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive are named partition (g: and H: ).
So multiple partitions allow:
To move personal and important data from the system partition. In the event of a system crash, the data will be saved because they are not part of the system partition.
To install multiple operating systems on a single hard drive. At each partition is possible to install an additional operating system. Since each partition will have a second disk drive, visibility is achieved.


In order to understand the partition, it is necessary to understand the following concepts.

Hard Disk - Hard disk drive is an electronic-mechanical device that can record and keep data on the computer. The principle of operation is simple, mechanical head writes data to disk drives magnetized below the head. Same magnetized disks contain a large number of platter that are divided on sectors, typically 512 of them.

Partition - The partition is the logical and physical part of your hard drive. This means that it is a single entity, as well as your own hard drive, and practically independent of the other partitions, which means like hard drive in a small package. Since partition contains a continuous strip of hard disk, it is physically determined. It is known beginning and end of the partition, and the following continues where the previous finish.

The System Partition - The partition that contains the operating system, or the operating system files. It is easily recognized by the presence of the \ Windows directory.

The Boot Partition - The partition from which makes it possible to boot from the hard disk. Usually the same as the system partition, but, as can be seen from the further text, may not be.

Boot Sector and MBRMBR (Master Boot sector) is usually the first sector on the disk that contains information about partitions, as well as a program that is able to run the active partition with the help of boot sector and partition. Each partition normally has its own boot sector, while the MBR normally located at the very beginning of the hard disk.

Active Partition - The MBR partition that will be used to bootstrap. On a hard drive, only one partition can be active. If no partition is not active, then the system will not be possible to raise the hard disk, because the BIOS will not be able to transmit  boot to the active partition.